Mineralogical and textural characterization of mortars and plasters from the archaeological site of Barsinia, northern Jordan

Mustafa Mohammad AL-Naddaf, Lamia Salem EL-Khouri

Abstract


Summary

Twelve mortar and plaster samples excavated in the archaeological site of Barsinia were mineralogically and petrographically examined by XRay Diffraction (XRD) and Stereo and Polarized Light Microscopy, while the total carbonate content was measured using a DietrichFruhling Calcimeter. The physical properties of the samples, such as water uptake under atmospheric pressure and under vacuum, together with density and porosity, were measured. Only twelve samples were available for the purposes of this study: 8 plaster samples and 4 mortar samples. Eleven samples out of the total number of samples were mortars or plasters with lime binder and silica aggregate; calcite and quartz were identified in all of these samples. In most of the samples one or more pozzolanic components were detected; a hydraulic effect therefore exists in practically most of the studied mortars. Excluding the plasters taken from waterbearing constructions such as cisterns, and the mortar sample from the compact floor, the binder content is high; in general, the overall porosity of the studied samples is high. Porosity and petrographic investigation results suggest that the burning temperature of the limestone was low and/or the duration of the combustion was short; such preparation conditions produce a desirable quicklime. Owing to the significant compositional and textural differences between the samples that were reported, there is consequently no suitable general mortar that can be adopted for the restoration of the whole site.


Riassunto

Dodici campioni di malta e intonaco, prelevati dal sito archeologico di Bar sinia, sono stati esaminati mineralogicamente e petrograficamente utilizzando l’analisi di diffrazione a raggi X (XRD) e microscopi stereoscopici e a luce pola rizzata, mentre il contenuto totale di carbonati è stata misurato utilizzando il cal cimetro DietrichFruhling. Sono state misurate le proprietà fisiche dei campioni, come l’assorbimento di acqua a pressione atmosferica e sotto vuoto, insieme alla densità e alla porosità. Per le finalità di questo studio erano disponibili solo dodici campioni: 8 campioni di intonaco e 4 campioni di malta. Undici campioni rispetto al numero totale erano malte o intonaci con legante di calce e aggregati di silice, e in tutti questi campioni potrebbero essere identificati calcite e quar zo. Nella maggior parte dei campioni sono stati rilevati uno o più componenti pozzolanici e, dunque, l’effetto idraulico si verifica praticamente nella maggior parte delle malte studiate. Escludendo gli intonaci prelevati da costruzioni ac quifere quali cisterne e il campione di malta dal pavimento compatto, il conte nuto di legante è alto. In generale, la porosità dei campioni studiati è alta. La porosità e i risultati dell’indagine petrografica suggeriscono che la combustione del calcare è avvenuta a temperature basse e/o la durata di combustione è stata breve; tali condizioni di preparazione producono la calce viva. Sarebbero state riportate significative differenze compositive e tessutali tra i campioni e, pertanto, non può essere impiegata nessuna generale malta di composizione per il restauro dell’intero sito.


Résumé

Douze échantillons de mortier et d’enduit prélevés du site archéologique de Barsinia ont été analysés d’un point de vue minéralogique et pétrographique par analyse par diffraction de rayons X (DRX) et au microscope stéréoscopique et à la lumière polarisée. La teneur totale en carbonates a été mesurée par le cal cimètre de DietrichFruhling. Les propriétés physiques des échantillons ont été mesurées, par ex. l’eau absorbée à la pression atmosphérique et sous vide, la densité et la porosité. Pour cette étude, nous n’avions que douze échantillons: 8 échantillons d’enduit et 4 de mortier. Onze échantillons sur douze étaient des mortiers ou des enduits avec un liant de chaux et des agrégats de silice. La calcite et le quartz pourraient être identifiés dans la totalité des échantillons. Dans la plupart des échantillons, on a détecté un ou plusieurs composants de type pouzzolanes. Dès lors, l’effet hydraulique se vérifie pratiquement dans la plupart des mortiers étudiés. La teneur en liant est élevée. Font exception les enduits prélevés de constructions aquifères (par ex., citernes) et l’échantillon de mortier prélevé du sol compact. En général, les échantillons étudiés étaient très poreux. La porosité et les résultats de l’étude pétrographique font supposer une combustion courte du calcaire, et/ou une combustion à basse température, conditions de préparation qui sont celles de la chaux vive. Du fait des différences importantes de composition et de texture qui auraient été constatées entre les échantillons, aucun mortier de composition standard ne peut être utilisé pour restaurer l’ensemble du site.


Zusammenfassung

Zwölf Mörtel und Putzproben aus der archäologischen Ausgrabungsstätte von Barsinia wurden mineralogischen und petrografischen Untersuchungen mittels Röntgenbeugung (XRD) und Einsatz von StereoPolarisationsmikroskopen un terzogen, während der GesamtKarbonatgehalt mithilfe eines Calcimeters nach DietrichFrühling ermittelt wurde. Gemessen wurden die physikalischen Eigen schaften der Proben, wie Wasserabsorption bei Atmosphärendruck und unter Va kuum, sowie Dichte und Porosität. Für diese Studie standen nur zwölf Proben zur Verfügung: 8 Putz und 4 Mörtelproben. Von allen vorhandenen Proben bestan den elf aus Mörtel oder Putz mit Kalkbinder und Kieselerde als Zuschlagstoff und in allen Proben könnten Calcit und Quarz nachgewiesen werden. In den meisten Proben wurden eine oder mehrere PuzzolanKomponenten ermittelt, d. h. die Bindung von Wasser findet praktisch in den meisten der untersuchten Mörtel statt. Von den aus Wassergewerken wie beispielsweise Zisternen stammenden Putzproben und den Mörtelproben aus dem kompakten Bodenbelag abgesehen, ist der Bindemittelgehalt hoch. Generell weisen die untersuchten Proben hohe Porosität auf. Die Porosität und die Ergebnisse der petrografischen Analyse las sen darauf schließen, dass die Verbrennung des Kalks bei niedrigen Temperatu ren stattgefunden und/oder dass diese Verbrennung nur kurze Zeit gedauert hat. Unter derartigen Herstellungsbedingungen entsteht Branntkalk. Zwischen den Proben wurden bedeutende Unterschiede in der Zusammensetzung und Gewe bestruktur festgestellt, daher ist die Verwendung eines Mörtels mit allgemein ge eigneter Zusam mensetzung für die Restaurierung des gesamten Standorts nicht möglich.


Resumen

Doce muestras de mortero y enlucido, tomadas en el yacimiento arqueológico de Barsinia, han sido examinadas desde el punto de vista mineralógico y petrográfico mediante análisis de difracción de rayos X (XRD) y microscopios estereoscópicos y de luz polarizada, mientras que el contenido total de carbonatos se ha medido empleando el calcímetro DietrichFruhling. Se han medido las propiedades físicas de las muestras, como la absorción de agua a presión atmosférica y al vacío, así como también la densidad y la porosidad. Para los fines de este estudio solo se disponía de doce muestras: ocho de enlucido y cuatro de mortero. Del total de las muestras, once estaban constituidas por morteros o enlucidos con aglutinante de cal y agregados de sílice. En todas ellas se han detectado calcita y cuarzo. En la mayoría se ha hallado por lo menos un componente puzolánico, por lo que puede afirmarse que en gran parte de los morteros estudiados se da el efecto hidráulico. A excepción de los enlucidos tomados en construcciones acuíferas, como cister nas, y de la muestra de mortero del suelo compacto, el contenido de aglutinante es elevado. En general, la porosidad de las muestras estudiadas es alta. La porosi dad y los resultados del estudio petrográfico sugieren que la combustión de caliza fue de breve duración y/o tuvo lugar a bajas temperaturas; dichas condiciones de preparación producen cal viva. Como se han encontrado diferencias significativas en la composición y los tejidos de las muestras, no se puede emplear ningún mor tero de composición de tipo genérico para restaurar la totalidad del yacimiento.


简介

针对十二份取自 Barsinia 建筑的泥浆和灰泥样本,均使用X射线衍射、立体显微镜和 偏光显微镜进行矿物学和岩相学分析测试,总含碳量使用 DietrichFruhling 碳酸计进行 测量。针对样本的物理特性,进行了如压力环境和真空下吸水性,材料密度和多孔性 测试。为达到实验目的仅准备 12 份样本: 8 份灰泥( Plaster )样本, 4 份泥浆( Mor tar )样本。总样本中的 11 份灰泥或泥浆样本混有石灰粘合剂和氧化硅集合体,每份样 本中均有方解石和石英成分存在。 在大部分样本中存在一种或多种白榴火山灰成分,因此在大部分泥浆研究中液压作 用均被实际证实。排除从含水结构如蓄水池中获得的灰泥样本和紧凑地板结构中获得 的泥浆样本,其他样本中均有高含量的粘合剂成分。多孔性和岩相调查提醒石灰常温 燃烧性很低,并且/或着燃烧时间持续很短;这样的条件下产生生石灰。样品间组成和 组织成分有很明显差别,因此在进行整个建筑群修复时,不可以仅使用同一种泥浆。


Резюме

Двенадцать образцов раствора и штукатурки, отобранных в археологиче ских раскопках в Барсинии, стали предметом минералографического и петрог рафического исследования, используя рентгенофазовый анализ и стереоско пические и поляризационные микроскопы, в то время как общее содержание карбонатов было измерено при помощи кальциметра ДитрихаФрюлинга. Были измерены такие физические характеристики образцов, как поглощение воды при атмосферном давлении и в вакууме, а также их плотность и пористость. Для проведения этого исследования в распоряжении имелось только двенад цать образцов: 8 образцов штукатурки и 4 образца раствора. Из общего коли чества образцов одиннадцать представляли собой растворы или штукатурки с известковым вяжущим и кремнеземными агрегатами, и во всех этих образцах можно бы обнаружить кальцит и кварц. В большинстве образцов были найде ны один или несколько пуццолановых компонентов, поэтому, гидравлический эффект возникает практически в большинстве исследуемых растворов. За исключением штукатурок, отобранных в таких водоносных сооружениях, как цистерны, и образца раствора из плотного пола, наблюдается высокое содер жание вяжущего вещества. В общем плане пористость исследуемых образцов является высокой. Пористость и заключения петрографического исследования наводят на мысль о том, что известняк горел при низкой температуре и/или в течение непродолжительного времени. При таких условиях подготовки получа ется негашеная известь. Поскольку были обнаружены значительные различия в составе и в текстуре разных образцов, невозможно применение одного общего раствора для реставрации всего объекта.


Keywords


Jordan; mortar; aggregate; physical properties; conservation

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DOI: 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/4742

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