Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage https://conservation-science.unibo.it/ <strong>Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage (CSCH) – ISSN 1973-9494</strong> is an international peer reviewed journal which continues Quaderni di Scienza della Conservazione. Dipartimento dei Beni Culturali, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna (Ravenna) en-US Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage 1974-4951 Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions. Authors grant the journal right of first publication.<div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div>This journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License</a>. (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode">full legal code</a>) <br />See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>. The healthy homes of the Ammatoa Kajang indigenous people, Indonesia https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15241 <p>Even today, there are communities of indigenous peoples in Indonesia that have chosen to live as their ancestors have. Their lives are strictly governed by customary rules that have been handed down for hundreds of years and set out in detail every aspect of how their dwellings are constructed; they take into consideration where and how their houses are built, and the effects of their dwellings on the physiology of the occupants, as well as the social, spiritual and cultural relations within their community, well-integrated into their system of beliefs and their environment. One of these indigenous communities that lives this way of life and has shunned all forms of modernization, is the Ammatoa Kajang, who inhabit a remote area of the South Sulawesi province. Their traditional homes, even today, are built adhering to centuries old oral precepts that incorporate many of the scientific principles that have been proven only in the last one hundred years to link house construction to its occupants’ physical and mental health. This is a qualitative study using both anthropological and architectural approaches to examine the homes of the Ammatoa Kajang indigenous community.</p> Andi Abidah Muhammad Yahya Bakhrani A. Rauf Copyright (c) 2021 Andi Abidah, Muhammad Yahya, Bakhrani A. Rauf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 67 82 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.01 The use of smart technologies to address stakeholder-related barriers in heritage management https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15243 <p>Heritage management initiatives often focus on minimizing human interference, an approach that often results in stakeholder related barriers. Smart technologies are an emerging aspect that provide a solution to such stakeholder-related barriers. However, academia and researchers concentrate on future possibilities and technical aspects of smart technologies, such as in smart cities, without addressing how the existing smart technology can reduce the detrimental impacts of stakeholder-related barriers to heritage management. This study investigates the stakeholder-related heritage management barriers and the possibilities of using current smart technology to eradicate them. Some of the stakeholder-related barriers include financial constraints, the tendency of seeing heritage sites as hindrances to economic growth, and the exclusion of surrounding communities from decision-making concerning heritage conservation policies. The study reviews smart technology and heritage management literature to reveal obstacles to successfully adopting intelligent architectural heritage management technology. The research compares various scholarly findings, a research design that facilitates a rich and in-depth analysis of the problem in question. The study results indicate that the exclusion of local communities and diverse stakeholders’ views are some of the main barriers to heritage management. Mobile phones, the internet, personal computers, electronic fund transfers, and digital media are available and straight- forward smart technologies for minimizing stakeholder related barriers to heritage management. The study concludes that stakeholders present a significant challenge in managing built heritage, although standard smart technologies can reduce obstacles.</p> Jawdat S. Goussous Copyright (c) 2021 Jawdat S. Goussous https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 83 94 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.02 Conservation of earthen architecture: governmental actions and owners’ practices to preserve Ksar Taghit, Algeria https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15244 <p>Earthen architecture, notably the ksour of Saoura in Algeria, offers us architectural and urban jewels, and inspiring lessons of human ingenuity showing how past communities had to adapt to the difficult characteristics of the region and integrate themselves into the sensitive and demanding oasis ecosystem. Ksar Taghit (a fortified oasis village) is an exceptional model of this knowledgeable architecture and an example of resistance to the various natural and anthropic risks it has experienced over time due to the various conservation and enhancement programs and the efforts of its inhabitants to enhance their heritage and open it to visitors. Through this study, based on archival documents, and supported by observations and interviews with various actors and photographs showing the state of the ksar, we intend to present the conservation programs undertaken in the region and the impact of the efforts of the inhabitants on the conservation of this property. This article, which is part of a doctoral thesis in progress, aims to present the impact of supervised rehabilitation and owners’ practices on the conservation of cultural values and the authentic spirit of the place. Going beyond the material aspect of the conservation, the question arises about whether the efforts undertaken are sufficient to make this common heritage operational and dynamic.</p> Tinhinane Bachir-Cherif Messaoud Aiche Oussouby Sacko Copyright (c) 2022 Tinhinane Bachir-Cherif, Messaoud Aiche, Oussouby Sacko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 95 108 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.03 A study of the socio-economic background in the modern management of cultural services https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15245 <p>Based on empirical research, the article aims to study the impact of new management tools on cultural services in Kazakh museums in the COVID-19 pandemic. An ecosystem development model of cultural services management in Kazakh museums was developed in the research. The model is based on the conceptual hypothesis of the development of cultural ecosystem services. According to the research carried out in 2020, 62762 tours were carried out in Kazakh museums, and 6972 lectures were presented for listeners. The total number of visitors was 2351.3 thousand people, of which children – 877.2 thousand people or 37.3%. The number of lectures, exhibitions, and tours in museums amounted to 49.8%, 49.1%, and 34.6%, respectively, in relation to 2019. Besides, the number of digitized exhibits amounted to 107.2%, in relation to 2019, and the indicators of providing museums with information and communication technologies (ICTs) also increased. This study proposes new management tools and approaches in the post-pandemic era to increase social efficiency and accessibility of cultural services provided by museums in various regions of Kazakhstan.</p> Gulnaz Kasbayeva Raushan Imanzhussip Almira Zhurkobayeva Marija Troyanskaya Copyright (c) 2021 Gulnaz Kasbayeva, Raushan Imanzhussip, Almira Zhurkobayeva, Marija Troyanskaya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 109 124 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.04 Evaluating the antimicrobial activity of essential oils in the conservation of mural paintings https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15246 <p>One bacterial species and five fungi were isolated from the mural paintings of the Egyptian tomb of Khety (Tomb No. 17, 11th Dyn.). The antimicrobial activity of lemon and thyme essential oils (EOs) diluted in ethanol 70% was evaluated against the bacterial isolate (related to the genus Alcaligenes and the species faecalis identified using 16 rRNA gene sequencing) and the most predominant fungi in the tomb, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium cyclopium and Fusarium Solani on agar plates using the disc diffusion method. Fragments were taken from the mural painting layers for analysis and examination to prepare replicas (5×5cm) similar to the archaeological mural painting and were artificially aged. Antimicrobial activity of the two studied EOs was evaluated against the bacterial isolate and the three studied fungi on replicas. Interestingly, our results revealed that the thyme oil at a concentration of 15% is generally more efficient than lemon EO against the three studied fungi and, in contrast, the lemon oil was more efficient against the bacterium than fungi. Moreover, colorimetric measurements proved that no notable changes occurred to the replica after treatment with the two tested EOs in 10% and 15%. From the GC-MS analysis, the volatile profile of the lemon oil revealed that it is mainly composed of monoterpenes, with citral, 6-exohydroxy camphene, and Fenchone as the major compounds. Our results showed that thymol (44.38%) is the major compound for the thyme oil.</p> Mayssa D. Albasil Gamal Mahgoub Abeer ElHagrassy Amany M. Reyad Copyright (c) 2021 Mayssa D. Albasil, Gamal Mahgoub, Abeer ElHagrassy, Amany M. Reyad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 125 148 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.05 A critical review on the classification process of historical monuments in Algeria https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15247 <p>Algeria has a rich and varied architectural heritage; unfortunately, this heritage has not been sufficiently taken care of. During the colonial period, France had a disdainful attitude towards Algerian heritage and considered it as “indigenous heritage not requiring to be taken into consideration,” and even worse, it preferred to classify ruins of ancient monuments from antiquity, “especially Roman monuments” to the detriment of monuments in good condition from the pre-Ottoman and Ottoman period. Besides, one can denote an obvious cultural influence, since a large number of monuments classified during the colonial period belong to the pre-Islamic or French period. However, the responsibility not only lies with the occupier, even if they are responsible for the disappearance of thousands of monuments. For their part, the Algerians themselves, through passivity, did not try to halt the deterioration of the heritage that had already started, even before independence. During the period of post-independence, an insignificant number of monuments were classified, few of which date from the pre-Ottoman and Ottoman period in comparison with those belonging to the prehistoric, ancient, French, as well as natural sites This attitude is not the result of a problem of legislation, but rather of a certain laxity in the execution and application of the laws by those who are supposed to promote them. One of the main obstacles obstructing the dynamics of heritage protection lies, without question, in the slowness of executing decisions.</p> Abdelouahed Oukebdane Benkoula Sidi Mohamed El Habib Copyright (c) 2021 Abdelouahed Oukebdane, Benkoula Sidi Mohamed El Habib https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 149 166 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.06 Andean cultural heritage: a systemic analysis of Peruvian museums for their representation, preservation, dissemination and sustainability https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15248 <p>Andean Cultural Heritage (ACH) is determined by multiple dimensions: material, intangible and documentary, all of which contribute to constituting its particular identity and characteristics, the formation of solid relationships with other cultures and historical legacy. However, geographical, health, economic, linguistic and social inequalities not only diminish potential benefits, but also the possibilities for their representation, preservation, dissemination and sustainability. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to develop a systemic analysis of the collection and presentation of the available collections in Peruvian museums, with the purpose of establishing strategies and measures that allow ACH to be integrated into the aforementioned benefits, as well as promoting greater participation of the actors involved: institutions, local governments, central government and the citizens themselves.</p> Mauro Marino-Jiménez Fany Rojas-Noa Daniel Morán-Ramos Copyright (c) 2021 Mauro Marino-Jiménez, Fany Rojas-Noa, Daniel Morán-Ramos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 167 179 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.07 From Moorish to neo-Moorish in Oranie (Algeria): a style between rupture and continuity https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15250 <p>Algeria, the center and heart of the Maghreb, has often been coveted by conquerors, attracted by its wealth and geostrategic location in the Mediterranean. This particular situation has made it a cultural crossroads. Thereby, “Moorish”, as one of the most remarkable expressions of Muslim architecture and a local architectural tradition specific to this region, has undergone the alterations and repercussions resulting from successive acculturations. This art, born in the Maghreb in the 10th century, has asserted itself as a specific style since the 13th century. If we consider the authenticity of this original production, several transformations and deformations, such as the “copy and the copy of the copy”, will appear because of the socio-political changes resulting from the colonial periods. From there, a crucial question arises: are these different figures that have appeared from the “Moorish”, the authentic, the “Turkish-Moorish”, the “neo-Moorish”, the “neo-Arab”, linked by a relationship of continuity or rupture? Through an iconographic comparative approach based on documentary support (plans, photos, etc.), we will try to expose existing links between these architectures. This contribution describes and analyzes the peculiarities and metamorphoses of this style throughout its history: from the “Ottoman reign”, which was followed by the French colonial “neo-Moorish” and finally to the “neo-Arab” form of the independence period. As a conclusion, it can be said that the appropriation of this architectural style was a way of legitimizing the presence of the successive masters of Algeria. Moorish served them as an instrument of ideological, cultural and political transmission.</p> Ahmed Zerrouki Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmed Zerrouki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 181 203 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.08 Freshwater cyanobacteria, identified by microscopic and molecular investigations on a colonized fountain surface: a case study in Palermo (Sicily, Italy) https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15251 <p>Cyanobacteria or blue algae are ubiquitously present in both fresh and brackish water environments. They also grow in conditions of high humidity, colonizing stones or monuments and fountain surfaces, and creating thick biofilms able to induce biodeterioration in the constituent materials of artefacts. As well as several photoautotrophic organisms, cyanobacteria belong to the microorganisms identified as primary colonizers, playing an important role in stone artwork deterioration. In this study, an analysis was made of the biofilm collected from the stone fountain of the Two Dragons in Palermo (Italy), revealing the presence of cyanobacterial colonies by optical microscopy, due to their peculiar auto-fluorescence. Furthermore, molecular investigations by qPCR (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) were utilized to gather quantitative information, and phylogenetics analysis was used to confirm the Thioredox- in reductase (TrxR) gene as a suitable molecular marker. The results highlight the presence of cyanobacteria as the main taxa, whose growth is induced by microclimatic and environmental conditions, and by the physical characteristics of the stone surface. Identification of microbial populations living on stone artworks is the starting point for successful control and conservation strategies, which can help to define the correct protocols to block cellular activity and to find appropriate methods for removing biofilm, as well as counteracting possible recolonization.</p> Roberta Russo Marco Chiaramonte Franco Palla Copyright (c) 2021 Roberta Russo, Marco Chiaramonte, Franco Palla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 205 220 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.09 Deterioration and conservation of an archaeological Byzantine lead sarcophagus from Jerash, Jordan https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15252 <p>The research looks at a Byzantine sarcophagus made of lead, found in Jerash (Gerasa), Jordan, kept in the warehouse of the Jerash Museum under No.1824. The sarcophagus was exposed to unsuitable storage conditions that caused severe damage. Examination by optical stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope revealed that the sarcophagus suffered from various deterioration phenomena, for example, the presence of corrosion layers, folds and various cracks. The analysis of the sarcophagus by the EDX unit attached to a scanning electron microscope and x-ray fluorescence, showed that it contained 98% lead, in addition to a very small percentage of other elements such as iron, aluminum, sodium, silicon, and carbon. Analysis by X-ray diffraction revealed that the sarcophagus also contained minerals, which included Graphite (C), Lead (Pb), Litharge (PbO), Cerussite PbCO3, Hydrocerussite 2PbCO3.Pb (OH)2. The treatment, restoration, and maintenance stages of the lead sarcophagus were then carried out and were followed by mechanical and chemical cleaning and straightening of the deformed areas. The missing parts were also integrated, and the four sides of the sarcophagus were assembled using plexiglass as a support material. Treatment with a benzotriazole solution in ethanol with a concentration of 5%, and with Paraloid B72, also with a concentration of 5% were carried out (coating). The sarcophagus cover was also completely repaired. After completion of the treatment, restoration, and conservation processes of the sarcophagus, a transparent glass cabinet of 1 cm thick was designed for its display inside the Jerash Museum in an environment with a relative humidity of 25-30% and temperature of 20-22 °C.</p> Wassef Al Sekhaneh Gehan Adel Mahmoud Abdelrahman Elserogy Bilal Fawwaz al-Boorini Copyright (c) 2021 Wassef Al Sekhaneh, Gehan Adel Mahmoud, Abdelrahman Elserogy, Bilal Fawwaz al-Boorini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 221 239 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.10 Conservation strategies and methods of dealing with the heritage in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15253 <p>The rise of a nation starts with heritage awareness, therefore, the architectural heritage, in particular, the historical heritage of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), not only adds value for the nation as a whole, it is also an integral part of the heritage of humanity. A country cannot develop without the conservation and protection of its heritage. The aim of this research is to suggest that clear methods and strategies are required for the protection and conservation of the heritage components present in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In this research, several elements are addressed, such as urban heritage, heritage conservation and heritage / historical buildings. Several common strategies in the process of heritage conservation are explored. The research also includes the evaluation of one of the local heritage sites registered on the list of protected world heritage. The results provided in this research can help the concerned bodies to deal more appropriately with the heritage components present in the KSA.</p> Adel Saleh Bouregh Copyright (c) 2021 Adel Saleh Bouregh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 241 258 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.11 The rupestrian church of San Pietro da Morrone (Matera, Italy): insights and photogrammetric-based characterisation https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15254 <p>Rupestrian cultural assets are remarkable examples of human occupation of the territory. As for any other cultural asset, the characterisation of rupestrian buildings is critical for their conservation and protection. However, there are a number of difficulties and challenges that are inherent in the physical singularities of these architectonic constructions, namely related to their geometrical irregularities. It is therefore important to use an appropriate approach to describe the geometry of these assets by overcoming some limitations that conventional measurement and surveying approaches have. The production of digital three-dimensional models is consequently a very useful and promising approach in this context. For most cultural assets and in particular geometrically complex objects, the approach is useful in reconstructing geometrical inner or exterior surfaces by means of photographic information. Photogrammetry is a technique used to acquire valuable and accurate three-dimensional information, which generates reliable models that also include integrated works, such as paintings or sculptures. The present work explores the suitability of this approach in the context of a remarkable case of rupestrian architecture, that of the church of San Pietro da Morrone. The building, located in the historical city of Matera (Italy), witnessed a series of transformations and varied uses, before it was abandoned in the middle of the 20th century. The experimental survey of this building provides a first insight into its geometry and a point of reference for discussing the implementation of a photogrammetric approach, its advantages, limitations and possibilities.</p> Rafael Ramírez Eudave Michele D’Amato Giuseppe Andrisani Copyright (c) 2021 Rafael Ramírez Eudave, Michele D’Amato, Giuseppe Andrisani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 259 278 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.12 Conservation management of performing art in East Java: a case study of traditional dances https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15255 <p>This research analyses the management of sanggar dance studios in East Java, and their role in preserving the three cultural areas where sanggar dance is performed: Arek Malangan, Mataram and Madura. Data was gathered through interviews conducted in Padepokan Mangun Darmo (for Arek culture), Tarara Dance Studio (for Madura culture), Sanggar Singo and Aglar Nuswantoro (for Mataram culture), as well as through direct observation, library studies and archival data, such as documents, photos and videos. Data analysis, data reduction and data presentation were subsequently conducted and conclusions were drawn, revealing a preservation management model. The results indicate that adherence to the cultural ways of thinking adopted by the community enables the management of dance studios to be effective in strengthening cultural resilience. Subsequently, the capabilities of East Java dance studios are realized through management practices, creative work processes, and the inheritance of noble values through education. The three dance studios displayed a long-standing existence and consistency despite the changing conditions brought by globalisation, thus, suggesting that evolving culture continues to be a life guide for the people. This implies that artists and governments need to carry out conservation management efforts focusing on protecting the community’s livelihood and educating the public so as to strengthen the cultural identity and resilience of the nation.</p> Warih Handayaningrum Autar Abdillah Pamela Arumynathan John Vong Copyright (c) 2021 Warih Handayaningrum, Autar Abdillah, Pamela Arumynathan, John Vong https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 279 297 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.13 Mummies’ physiognomy and its reflections in the artistic style of the New Kingdom https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15256 <p>The research paper discusses the facial features on a number of statues of kings and queens from the New Kingdom, and whether they are “realistic or idealistic” when compared to their mummies’ faces. The aim is to try to understand the extent to which the anatomical differences of the individual features of the statues’ faces differ to the facial features found on the corresponding mummies’ faces.</p> Sara A. Abdoh Copyright (c) 2021 Sara A. Abdoh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-22 2022-08-22 21 299 315 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.14 The architecture of subtraction in the rural landscape of central Italy: conservation and valorization https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15257 <p>The architecture of subtraction in rural landscapes is a type of architecture which was of great economic and cultural value for rural society until the twentieth century. Knowledge, cataloguing, conservation and valorization of architecture have therefore all become essential elements in protecting the culture and the rural landscape of Central Italy. The article presents and catalogues this type of architecture and proposes a project that aims at the recovery and valorization of several abandoned and degraded excavated sites, to set up an open-air museum that focuses on the rural and artisan life of the nineteenth and twentieth century.</p> Andrea Natali Maria Letizia De Luca Copyright (c) 2021 Andrea Natali, Maria Letizia De Luca https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 317 336 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.15 Special relativity: Albert Einstein to Leonardo Da Vinci https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15258 <p>The final printing of “Albert Einstein Correspondence avec Michele Besso 1903 - 1955” was released by Collection Savoir, Hermann, Paris, on “Nine-Eleven” 2001. Upon collecting the full printed run of the Einstein/Besso correspondence, the heir to the Besso estate, Dr. Vittorio Besso, was invited to attend the scientific conference LACONA V (LACONA is the abbreviation of the words Lasers for Artworks Conservation, which is the name of the most important international conference in the field) where he became aware of the laser technique for the divestment of restorations from paintings. Thereafter upon returning to his ophthalmological studio in Imperia, Italy, Dr. Besso performed laser ablation of overpaints revealing pentimenti of the painter’s autograph on a “Mona Lisa” painting in the family collection of inherited Renaissance paintings. An IR photograph of the faint signature pentimenti was then compared with validated autographs of Leonardo’s assistant and companion, Francesco Melzi, and found to be geometrically inconsistent with validated signatures. Amplitude histograms of features of this “Mona Lisa” were next compared with comparable validated original portraits by Melzi, revealing chiaroscuro “fingerprints.” Any potential Melzi attribution would be consistent with the Besso family history as illuminated in the fifty-two years of Einstein/Besso correspondence concerning both art and science.</p> John Asmus Vadim Parfenov Copyright (c) 2021 John Asmus, Vadim Parfenov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 337 344 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.16 Application of deacidification for archives conservation at the Singosari national artificial insemination center (Balai Besar Inseminasi Buatan, BBIB), Indonesia https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15259 <p>Deacidification is a method used to neutralize acids that can damage paper and provide a buffer to protect paper from the effects of acid from the outside. This research is related to the application of deacidification for archive paper at BBIB Singosari. BBIB Singosari is the Singosari Center for Artificial Insemination (BBIB) and is a technical implementation unit (UPT) of the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health. The purpose of this research is to apply the deacidification process at the BBIB Singosari Center and observe the physical factors which have an effect on preservation efforts. High acidity levels cause damage to archive paper, staining it yellow, and making it brittle. The deacidification process can change the condition of the paper to alkaline. In this experiment, the deacidification process is done by means of brushing and spraying techniques using calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solutions at 0.1% and 1%.</p> Eka Ratri Noor Wulandari Tri Mega Asri Nanda Mareta Krisnandita Copyright (c) 2021 Eka Ratri Noor Wulandari, Tri Mega Asri, Nanda Mareta Krisnandita https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 345 352 10.48255/1973-9494.JCSCH.21.2021.17 Social networks and telematic communication in art during the Covid-19 pandemic: some distances save, other distances unite https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15260 <p>The following paper aims to highlight how the art market at a global level has introduced and, in the long run, consolidated aspects and results due to the profound changes that have taken place following the pandemic in to- day’s society in which the virtual predominates. As a result, the use of remote communication has greatly intensified and led to major transformations in the strategies of leading auction houses, in particular, Christie’s and Sotheby’s, with a consequent rise in profits, as well as a decidedly reassuring public reaction. There is also mention of online art fairs, such as WopArt, and new artistic expressions that testify to changes in styles and genres in the artistic sector, which include street art and digital art. Finally, within the context of the peculiarities of these artistic products and cycle of activities, the priority is to develop a science in which interdisciplinarity, as a synergy of the human sciences and experimental sciences, represents the result of uniting different skills outside scientific and geographical boundaries.</p> Salvatore Lorusso Alexandre Lobodanov Copyright (c) 2021 Salvatore Lorusso, Alexandre Lobodanov https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 355 382 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/15260 Premise https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15290 Salvatore Lorusso Copyright (c) 2021 Salvatore Lorusso https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/15290 Presentation of the journal “Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage” art and science, art is science https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15291 Walter Tega Copyright (c) 2021 Walter Tega https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/15291 Art and science, art is science https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15306 Salvatore Lorusso Copyright (c) 2021 Salvatore Lorusso https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/15306 A philosophical look at the relationship between art and science https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15307 Mauro Mantovani Copyright (c) 2021 Mauro Mantovani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/15307 The journal «Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage»: the culture of evaluation in learning and research https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15308 Daniela Porro Copyright (c) 2021 Daniela Porro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/15308 History, intentions, aims https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15309 Giovanni Carbonara Copyright (c) 2021 Giovanni Carbonara https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/15309 Culture, not culturalism: the journal “Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage” https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15317 Cosimo Damiano Fonseca Copyright (c) 2021 Cosimo Damiano Fonseca https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/15317 Editorial https://conservation-science.unibo.it/article/view/15237 Salvatore Lorusso Mauro Mantovani Copyright (c) 2021 Salvatore Lorusso, Mauro Mantovani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 2022-08-02 2022-08-02 21 57 65 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/15237