Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage <strong>Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage (CSCH) – ISSN 1973-9494</strong> is an international peer reviewed journal which continues Quaderni di Scienza della Conservazione. Dipartimento dei Beni Culturali, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna (Ravenna) en-US Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage 1974-4951 Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions. Authors grant the journal right of first publication.<div><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License</a>. (<a href="">full legal code</a>) <br />See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>. Imperfection and Perfection in Culture, Science, Art, Research Salvatore Lorusso Mauro Mantovani Copyright (c) 2021 Salvatore Lorusso, Mauro Mantovani 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 19 29 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12785 Interdisciplinarity, Ethics and Territorial Planning <p>Representing a phenomenon of social aggregation, the settlements of the rock civilization of Fasano and Monopoli in Brindisi, Italy and their recovery, is one of the objectives pursued by the technical-scientific committee of the San Domenico Foundation, which involves experts at national and international level. This paper, presented at the 8th International Conference, intends to highlight how art, as a testimony of these settlements in the area of this rock civilization, is not attributable only to beauty, but also to ethics, and as such, is synonymous with identity. This leads to concepts and meanings deriving from interdisciplinarity, sustainability, planning, territorial development, as well as the need to train a specialized and multi-faceted professional figure who is qualified to operate in the field of the protection and valorisation of the past, in order to be able to competently pass it on through to the future</p> Salvatore Lorusso Lucio Colizzi Copyright (c) 2021 Salvatore Lorusso, Lucio Colizzi 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 33 48 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12786 A Multidisciplinary Study of the Tongerlo Last Supper and its Attribution to Leonardo Da Vinci’s Second Milanese Studio <p>This article presents the findings from a two-year study of the <em>Last Supper</em> canvas in the Abbey of Tongerlo, Belgium, including a detailed review of its provenance as well as a multispectral study conducted by IMEC and IPARC. The study used a composite multidisciplinary approach, with traditional connoisseurship and literary research augmented by scientific examination, including IRR (Infrared Reflectography). The article argues that based on the available evidence, the Tongerlo <em>Last Supper</em> was produced in Leonardo’s Milanese workshop between 1507 and 1509, as a collaborative project involving the <em>Leonardeschi</em> Giampietrino, Andrea Solario, and Marco d’Oggiono under Leonardo’s supervision. Furthermore, the infrared spectography scans suggest that the face of John in the painting was painted by Leonardo himself.</p> Jean-Pierre Isbouts Christopher H. Brown Copyright (c) 2021 Jean-Pierre Isbouts, Christopher H. Brown 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 49 64 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12787 Conservation and Reassessment of an Overlooked Skeletal Collection Preserved Since 1901 at the Museum of Anthropology “G. Sergi”, Rome <p>The osteological investigation of archived and historic skeletal collections can often provide clues to how they were organised and managed, offering key osteobiographical insight into past populations. A small, yet significant, collection of skulls housed at the Museum “Giuseppe Sergi” of the Sapienza University of Rome, remained anonymous prior to a recent reassessment protocol started in 2018. This collection was excavated from a funerary area discovered during the 19<sup>th</sup> century from the site of Castel Trosino (Ascoli Piceno, Italy). The cemetery was part of an important community during the Longobard domination of Italy, as testified by the richness of the cultural artefacts reported with the burials. The 19 skulls presented in this paper are the only ones available for assessment; all the others were lost shortly after the first excavation. Their importance is related to providing a better understanding of biological evidence of a community that lived in Italy during the Early Middle Ages.</p> Ileana Micarelli Robert R. Paine Mary Anne Tafuri M. Elisabetta Aloisi Masella Giorgio Manzi Copyright (c) 2021 Ileana Micarelli, Robert R. Paine, Mary Anne Tafuri, M. Elisabetta Aloisi Masella, Giorgio Manzi 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 65 78 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12788 Effect of Five Essential Oils as Green Disinfectants on Selected Photographic Prints: Experimental Study <p>Albumen, silver gelatin and chromogenic prints are found abundantly among photographic collections in Egypt. Due to the uncontrolled environment in archives and libraries, this precious visual heritage with its high protein and cellulose content provides the right culture medium required for fungal growth. Many essential oils have been proven to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Essential oils offer a safe alternative to other common disinfection methods; however, their effect on the properties of photographs have not received much study. This paper studies the effect of vapors of anise, cinnamon, clove, lavender and thyme oils on albumen, silver gelatin and chromogenic prints, to find a proper disinfection method that is user-friendly and environmentally safe and respects the nature of photographic materials. Essential oils were provided by the National Research Center (NRC) in Cairo, Egypt. Artificially aged albumen prints, and naturally aged silver gelatin and chromogenic prints were exposed in desiccators to the selected essential oils in the vapor phase for a period of 5 days. All samples were artificially aged at a temperature of 80°C and 65% RH for a period of 5 days to study the long-term effects of the tested treatments. Treatments were evaluated using several techniques including visual inspection, microscopic inspection, colorimetric measurements, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that all tested essential oils had a very slight effect on the tested photographic samples; however lavender oil was found to be the best option, specifically in terms of preserving the chemical properties of the photographic surfaces.</p> Maha Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Maha Ali 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 79 97 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12791 Deformed Statues of Ramses II: a Study of Disruptive Restorations in Egypt in the 21st Century <p>The research paper discusses the problem of distorting the body proportions in Ramses II statues during the inadequate restoration operations carried out in the 21<sup>st</sup> century in Egypt. It also discusses the correct artistic body proportions and formation of Ramses II, which must be followed when assembling and restoring statues depicting this figure, at the same time taking into consideration other, unrestored statues, reliefs and paintings of the same subject. In addition, it looks at global restoration technologies that can help to solve the problem of improper restoration in Egypt.</p> Sara A. Abdoh Copyright (c) 2021 Sara A. Abdoh 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 99 109 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12792 From Site Survey to HBIM Model for the Documentation of Historic Buildings: the Case Study of Hexinwu Village in China <p>Architectural heritage surveying plays a fundamental role in the preservation of historic buildings for scientific research, education and tourism. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Terrestrial Laser Scanning techniques are essential for architectural heritage surveying and mapping. In recent years, the combination of Building Information Modelling (BIM) with heritage studies has been presented as Historic BIM (HBIM) which, integrated with UVA and TLS, is a technique that is able to deal more efficiently with the management and protection of historic buildings. This paper focuses on the integration of UVA images and point clouds from laser scanning to build a 3D architectural model for the documentation of Chinese historic buildings. In particular, the method, tested in the case study of the traditional village, Hexinwu, China, can contribute further to the analysis, evaluation and heritage planning of this remarkable architectural structure, thus increasing its historical significance for the future.</p> Guiye Lin Andrea Giordano Kun Sang Copyright (c) 2021 Guiye Lin, Andrea Giordano, Kun Sang 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 111 123 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12793 Tourists’ Attitude Towards Cultural Heritage and their Willingness to Pay to Visit: a Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan <p>Tourists’ interest in traveling to Lahore (more specifically to the Badshahi Mosque and the Royal fort) has increased in recent years and is expected to continue. Despite this, very few facts are known about an individual's attitude towards cultural heritage. This study looks at the pre- and post- visit factors that encourage tourists to come to the cultural heritage sites and also identifies variables that help to estimate their willingness to pay (<em>WTP</em>) for admission to visit them. The data from 200 tourists was collected through a well-prepared questionnaire and then used in the final analysis. The contingent valuation method (<em>CVM</em>), considered to be the most useful, with a dichotomous choice question, was used to estimate the <em>WTP.</em> Two models were used in estimating the&nbsp;<em>WTP, </em><em>i.e.</em>&nbsp;binary regression and ordinary least squares (<em>OLS</em>). The findings acknowledged that tourists were interested in retaining happy memories, experiences and knowledge through the visit. More than 75% of the tourists were willing to pay&nbsp;for cultural heritage, had a positive attitude toward it and would like to visit these destinations again. Tourists’ income was a positive and significant determiner of&nbsp;<em>WTP</em>; the total cost of the visit and environmental issues were negatively related to&nbsp;<em>WTP</em>. As tourism provides an important source of income, the findings of this study point to some practical recommendations that may be implemented in the future by local authorities.</p> Muhammad Hassan Mahboob Muhammad Ashfaq Rao Aamir Khan Yasir Kamal Asad Afzal Humayon Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Hassan Mahboob, Muhammad Ashfaq, Rao Aamir Khan, Yasir Kamal, Asad Afzal Humayon 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 125 138 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12794 Environment, Food, Culture: Covid-19 <p>Human activities and the exploitation of natural resources cause the loss of biodiversity and a scarcity of drinking water, as well as the spread of serious and unknown diseases. Therefore, the WHO has raised the alarm regarding the premature deaths in the world caused by environmental pollution. In Northern Italy, as in China, the high level of PM10 pollutants have contributed to the virulent spread of the Covid 19 epidemic. This is further support for the philosophy of insecurity that defends the fragility of "zero risk". In addition to the many painful deaths, the current pandemic has also created a general and profound economic crisis, putting the survival of the weakest populations at risk. In Italy it has heavily affected both the production sector and that of cultural heritage, a key element in the country's global image, as well as in the agri-food sector. The priority for intervention has now been transferred from the healthcare system to the sectors of economics and politics, which must adopt appropriate measures for a hopefully rapid recovery in production and, with that, a return to work, with income, health safety, and the safeguard of the environment and cultural heritage.</p> Pier Giorgio Tupini Copyright (c) 2021 Pier Giorgio Tupini 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 139 145 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12795 Mutation of the Seaside Architecture in Algeria and its Impact on Coastal Landspace. A Case Study: Ain El Turc, Algeria <p>The sea strongly contributes to the identity of coastline areas. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the coastline is a geographical entity which calls for specific organization.</p> <p>From an architectural point of view, design elements have been associated with the assets (or constraints) of the site. Thus, the view is associated with the bow window, protection against the climate with canopies and protruding roofs, and quality of the soil and bedrock. Integration into the site is also highly desirable, both in form (ship) and in construction materials.</p> <p>The urbanization of coastal areas in Algeria is a colonial fact. In pre-colonial times, little importance was given to these areas, whereas later they became a priority: port sites, the speed of communications with Europe, rich agricultural plains, a mild climate and welcoming beaches. The developments and seaside constructions carried out during this period were part of the logic of attractiveness to welcome more European settlers and promote the sedentarization and growth of those already living in Algeria.</p> <p>After independence, political and economic choices did not unfortunately take into account the geographical and climatic specificity of Algeria’s coastal zones. Thus, population growth and rural depopulation have led to a sharp increase in the demand for real estate, which has resulted in unbridled urbanization, regardless of the seaside vocation of these territories.</p> <p>In this article, based on the case of the seaside resort of Ain El Turc, which has colonial architectural production of an exceptional quality that takes into account the specificities of the coastline and the presence of the sea, the aim is to assess and verify if this architecture was perpetuated after independence.</p> <p>To this end, we have highlighted, through bibliographic research, the characteristics of seaside architecture from the 19th and 20th centuries and those of the contemporary time.</p> <p>An analysis of all the dwellings located in the Saint Rock district in the municipality of Ain El Turc consisted in identifying these characteristics and establishing a classification of these constructions.</p> Mohamed Tewfik Bouroumi Malika Kacemi Lamia Khadidja Beghdoud Copyright (c) 2021 Mohamed Tewfik Bouroumi, Malika Kacemi, Lamia Khadidja Beghdoud 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 147 165 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12796 Weathering of Outdoor Beech Wood and Methods of Conservation <p>The aim of this study is to highlight the appearance of deterioration resulting from weathering effects on the beech wood used in the ornamentation of wooden window grilles (Mashrabiya) in the Mosque of Prince Hassan, in Akhmim-Sohag and in the Mosque of Khawand Asalbay, in Fayoum, Egypt. This wood was accurately examined with a Digital microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to diagnose the deterioration processes on the surface of the wood. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the changes in the main components of the beech wood resulting from weathering factors. The chromatic change of the beech wood surface was measured by spectrophotometer and the results were calculated by using the CIE-L*a*b* system. Results showed the physical and chemical changes that had occurred in the degraded beech wood. The results helped to develop a treatment plan using already experimented materials that do not harm the wooden artifacts.</p> Mahmoud Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Mahmoud Ali 2021-05-27 2021-05-27 20 167 180 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12797 Bebegig Sukamantri: Astral Sunda Heritage in Indonesia <p>This article provides a glimpse into the story and meaning of the <em>Bebegig Sukamantri</em> Mask which is used in the art of a sustainable and fast-growing folk carnival in West Java, Indonesia. The masks used in the carnival are unique and are an expression of the cultural heritage left by the ancestors of the ancient Sundanese people in West Java.</p> <p>Each mask creation, in various colors and shapes, derives from the face of <em>Batarakala</em>, who is a very well-known figure in Hindu culture and represents the god of anger. Based on the various shapes and colors of the masks, there are three groups, which are believed to relate to the mythology of the existence of astral creatures that protected ancient Sundanese people, namely <em>Rakshasa</em> for the nobility, <em>Detya</em> for the common people and <em>Denawa</em> for the clergy. The existence of these astral beings is found in the 15th-century ancient manuscript entitled <em>Sanghyang Siksa Kanda</em><em> i</em><em>ng Karesian</em> (a clue to Reshi).</p> <p>Preserving the <em>Bebegig Sukamantri</em> mask as part of ancient Sundanese cultural heritage is a worthwhile goal because of its uniqueness and its significance for future generations. It is, moreover, greatly appreciated as a cultural carnival event at both national and international level.</p> Edi Setiadi Putra Rosa Karnita Copyright (c) 2021 Edi Setiadi Putra, Rosa Karnita 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 181 196 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12798 An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Historical and Technical Characterization of Medieval and Modern Mortars <p>The study concerns Italian masonries and focuses on historical, medieval and modern mortars. Within the context of the different regions under examination (Piedmont, the Po Valley area, Latium, the Umbria-Marche region, and Apulia and Sardinia) a wide variety of materials with different chemical-physical characteristics were used in masonry work, determining different structural behaviors. The project aims at improving our knowledge about historical mortars in order to further the conservation of Italian built heritage, especially in zones with seismic risk. To achieve these results, we took samples and carried out analyses to investigate the different mechanical and cohesion properties that influence the vulnerability of ruined or collapsed structures.</p> <p>This information has enabled advances to be made in the prevention, maintenance, protection and preservation of historical buildings.</p> <p>Further details will concern the history of construction techniques, with particular regard to the relationship between local resources and construction sites. Another important topic is the role of different components and additives during the preparation of the mortars and their level of hydraulicity.</p> Daniela Esposito Aida Maria Conte Laura Corda Elisabetta Giorgi Copyright (c) 2021 Daniela Esposito, Aida Maria Conte, Laura Corda, Elisabetta Giorgi 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 197 212 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12799 Transmission of Traditions in the Transformation of the Traditional Balinese House <p>Spaces in the traditional Balinese house were not only places for accommodating domestic and socio-cultural activities, but also locations for handing down traditions. In this transmission process, people taught and learned by participating in collaborative activities where the young generation observed, helped or imitated their elders. Central to this argument is an exploration of how the old generations transfer their traditions to the next, based on new conditions. This transmission was a learning process which started from an early age in which parents and grandparents played a predominant role. However, along with the growth of tourism, there are now known to be a substantial number of houses that have been transformed into tourist facilities by demolishing and relocating social and ceremonial spaces in the house. As a cultural phenomenon, the transformation involves an interrelated complexity of aspects and gives rise to the question about the continuity of the transmission process in these new settings. Using visual documentation and interviews, dynamic cultural activities over time could be collected and inventoried to reconstruct the transformation of the house and contextualize the handing down process of traditions. This article found that the transformation has happened in various ways, both as physical and socio-cultural aspects. The change in the tourist industry has meant the space and the time people dedicate to voluntary work to perform traditions is limited, so that their preservation is at risk. It is an indication of the process of waning traditions in the traditional house and is likely to affect the continuity of Balinese culture in the future.</p> I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putra Copyright (c) 2021 I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putra 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 213 226 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12800 Dabkeh al Djoufieh: Exploring the Sustainability of Jordanian Folklore <p>The authors of this paper analyze the <em>Dabkeh al Djoufieh (</em><em>Dabkɛ ālǧwofyɛ</em>) in its capacity as an inherent part of Jordanian folklore that has been seldom studied. Whereas contemporary Jordan has experienced a rapid burst of cultural globalization, the rural song and dance of <em>Dabkeh al Djoufieh</em> can be observed as a highly dynamic manifestation of belonging and as a symbol of national solidarity. One of the defining features of the <em>Dabkeh al Djoufieh</em> is that it is immanent in every social event in Arab communities. Secondly, as a sample of folk music, <em>Dabkeh al Djoufieh</em> continues to be a vibrant resource for contemporary audiences. The paper focuses on the main musical and poetic characteristics of <em>Dabkeh al Djoufieh</em>. The qualitative analysis applied integrates ideas concerning semantics as a representation of the social context and ethnic identities, whereas music is viewed as an indicator of local heritage. This paper probes the questions: What is <em>Dabkeh Djoufieh?</em> Where does it originate? And how is it implemented in Jordanian folklore culture?</p> <p>Furthermore, the study discusses the social power found within&nbsp;poetic folk verse, specifically, the role of the metaphor as a tool for expressing communal realities and individual experiences. Likewise, the study analyzes the musical features of the traditional&nbsp;<em>Dabkeh al Djoufieh</em> and how it moved across generations, sacred and social boundaries, becoming a symbol of Jordanian folk tradition.</p> Tsonka Al Bakri Mohammed Mallah Copyright (c) 2021 Tsonka Al Bakri, Mohammed Mallah 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 227 245 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12801 Tourist Activity of Skansens in the System of Intangible Cultural Heritage <p>The article examines the study of skansens (open-air museums) in the system of intangible cultural heritage of the country (Ukraine). The research methodology is to apply the historical, bibliographic and analytical methods the authors investigated to write the article. The scientific novelty of the work is to substantiate the feasibility and application of a new model of open-air tourist activity in the system of intangible cultural heritage of different countries. Peculiarities in tourism development in post-industrial society have influenced the conceptual approach to the museum topos that has evolved from representative-decorative to the closed topos of public expositions, symbolic topos of the post-industrial era, to the open topos of skansens and the virtual topos of interactive museums. The spread of skansens as interactive open-air expositions pay attention to changes that have taken place in the cultural and socio-economic life of modern society. New trends in the development of active consumption in the social and economic spheres, globalization, and the appearance of cultural and creative branches have determined the new activities of Skansens, which have been transformed from museums that merely displayed ethnographic collections, to socio-cultural complexes, directed towards developing the recreational and aesthetic potential of leisure activities, the formation of a spiritual personality, and the strengthening of family values ​​and traditions.</p> Stepan Dychkovskyy Larysa Liashenko Copyright (c) 2021 Stepan Dychkovskyy, Larysa Liashenko 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 247 263 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12802 Andiriposi’ and its Function in Traditional Houses at Pitu Ulunna Salu, Mamasa Regency, Indonesia <p>The location of this research is in the Pitu Ulunna Salu (PUS) region, Mamasa Regency, Indonesia. The aim is to examine and report on the function of the <em>Andiriposi’</em> in traditional houses in the Pitu Ulunna Salu area in the past. The methodology involved carrying out a qualitative study by exploring all research areas. Data was collected by observation and in-depth interviews with the local elders who still have knowledge of the function of the <em>Andiriposi'</em> in traditional houses in the past. Data analysis involved qualitative analysis, which included data collection, data presentation, data reduction and drawing conclusions. The results showed that the function of the <em>Andiriposi’</em> in traditional houses in the Pitu Ulunna Salu area was: 1) Structural: as the main pillar in the middle of the house and as the central point of the lower structure and the floor of the building; 2) <em>Adats</em> (customs): as a starting point for the construction of houses and as a seat for the traditional leader during the implementation of <em>adat</em> meetings; and 3) Practical function: as a mortar where rice is pounded in the house, and as a place to slaughter pigs, when there is a traditional ritual performed inside the traditional house.</p> Mithen Lullulangi Raeny Tenriola Onesimus Sampebua’ Copyright (c) 2021 Mithen Lullulangi, Raeny Tenriola, Onesimus Sampebua’ 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 265 274 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12803 The Adaptive Reuse of Castles in Tourism and Settlement Development – Primary Impact Assessment of Somogy County’s Castle Hotels, Hungary <p>In Europe and in Hungary, there are a large number of built heritage assets. Nowadays castles can be reused as schools, common lodging houses, hospitals or residential buildings. The optimal way to reuse them is as museums, hotels and event venues for tourist purposes. The current study aims to present and evaluate the adaptive reuse of castles as hotels and assess the interest of local residents, leaders and castle-owners. The research focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of castle hotels in the life of the settlements. The case studies were conducted in Somogy County, where several castle hotels are located. Interviews and surveys are essential research methods. The research emphasizes the need for co-operation, which is indispensable for reusing the castles as hotels, to satisfy all stakeholders.</p> Judit Péterfi Copyright (c) 2021 Judit Péterfi 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 275 288 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12804 Multi-Level Characterization of Microbial Consortia Involved in the Biodeterioration of Wooden and Stone Romanian Heritage Churches <p>The 17th to 19th century wooden and stone churches are an iconic symbol of Romanian national heritage. The present study investigates by qualitative and quantitative methods the microbial communities from the biodeteriorated surfaces of wooden and stone monument churches included in the cultural heritage list of local or national importance. From a total of twelve monuments, samples were taken with cotton sterile swabs, inoculated on specific culture and identified by classical, automated and molecular methods. A total of 133 strains belonging to <em>Ascomycota</em> <em>phylum</em> were identified and confirmed at species level from the wooden churches, amongst which, <em>Penicillium</em> spp. strains (mostly <em>P. corylophylum, P. chrysogenum</em>) were the most frequent, followed by <em>Alternaria alternata</em> and species of <em>Trichoderma</em>, <em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Rhizopus</em>, <em>Mucor</em>, and <em>Fusarium</em> genera. From the stone churches a total of 100 strains belonging to <em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Alternaria</em>, <em>Mucor</em>, <em>Penicillium</em>, <em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Trichoderma</em>, <em>Fusarium</em> and <em>Rhizopus</em> genera were isolated.</p> <p>A total of 55 bacterial strains were isolated and identified as <em>Bacillus</em>, <em>Artrobacter</em> and <em>Pseudomonas</em> species. The microbial load of the samples ranged between 2.18x10<sup>7 </sup>and 3x10<sup>5</sup> CFU/mL. A very small number of fungal strains (6/77) isolated from wooden churches (mostly <em>A. alternata</em>, followed by <em>P. corylophilum</em> and one <em>Cladosporium</em> spp. strain) and from stone churches (5/55) (mostly <em>A. alternata</em>, followed by <em>A. versicolor</em>, <em>A. nidulans</em> strain) were involved in biofilm formation.</p> <p>The results of this study can help to improve understanding of the microbial deterioration of Romanian heritage churches and allow more reliable decontamination, conservation and preservation tools to be defined.</p> Irina Gheorghe Ionela Sârbu Ionut Pecete Ion Blăjan Irina Balotescu Copyright (c) 2021 Irina Gheorghe, Ionela Sârbu, Ionut Pecete, Ion Blăjan, Irina Balotescu 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 289 308 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12805 Virus, Art and Faith: How to Respond to Covid-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) <p>"We are not living an epoch of change so much as an epochal change”, to quote Pope Francis. And in this new world full of new challenges, difficult to understand, the pandemic has prevented us from having direct and indirect contact, from sharing, from alterity.</p> <p>And in art, a well-known introspective tool for exploring the soul and the body, what are the responses and reactions in considering the present dramatic and lasting pandemic moment? And can faith offer a new perspective in a world where the main social projects have proved inadequate? That is to say the same faith from which the need to develop research, in all its forms and levels, starting with scientific research, as a service and as a way to invest in "construction".</p> Salvatore Lorusso Mauro Mantovani Lucio Colizzi Copyright (c) 2021 Salvatore Lorusso, Mauro Mantovani, Lucio Colizzi 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 20 309 326 10.6092/issn.1973-9494/12807