Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage <strong>Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage (CSCH) – ISSN 1973-9494</strong> is an international peer reviewed journal which continues Quaderni di Scienza della Conservazione. en-US Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions. Authors grant the journal right of first publication.<div><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License</a>. (<a href="">full legal code</a>) <br />See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>. (Salvatore Lorusso) (OJS Support) Thu, 20 Jul 2023 12:13:14 +0200 OJS 60 The journal “Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage” in the coming years: a commitment to the “Culture System” Salvatore Lorusso, Mauro Mantovani Copyright (c) 2022 Salvatore Lorusso, Mauro Mantovani Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The background story and research history of the case study “Mona Lisa”: the volume “Is the Louvre Mona Lisa Leonardo’s Second Version?” <p>The research carried out over the years on the theme “Attribution and authentication of artworks” and, therefore, on the case-study “Mona Lisa”, as topical as it is strongly debated, is continued with the first and the second volume entitled: “Is the Louvre Mona Lisa Leonardo’s second version?” <br>500 years of historical-bibliographic references, taken from publications by scholars of the humanistic and experimental sciences, relating to the question posed in the title of the volume. With reasonable certainty it has been proved that Leonardo executed two distinct and successive paintings of the Mona Lisa with different aesthetic-visual and structural characteristics confirmed by analytical investigations as well as historical-bibliographic examinations. It refers to the first unfinished version of the younger Lisa del Giocondo referable to the painting, Isleworth Mona Lisa, called Earlier Mona Lisa, and to the successive version, that is the Louvre Mona Lisa, finished, as a result of a more advanced pictorial technique and different structure.</p> Salvatore Lorusso, Angela Mari Braida, Andrea Natali Copyright (c) 2022 Salvatore Lorusso, Angela Mari Braida, Andrea Natali Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Non-destructive testing of nano-silica for enhancing the durability of limestone structures in the Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt <p>The Valley of the Kings (KV) is a UNESCO world heritage site with more than thirty tombs that have been opened. Since the first tombs were constructed, at least 24 historical flash flood events have been identified, each of which has contributed to the destruction and deterioration of the tombs. After the floods of 1994, most of these tombs were inundated and damaged. Theban Tomb 109, or TT 109, is an example of one of these significant tombs. This study presents a novel technique which uses computer X-ray tomography (CT scan) as a non-destructive method to capture the morphology of the limestone's internal structure at Tomb 109 (TT 109), as well as the stone's grain texture and the surface features through 3D images and videos. Additionally, this research examines the ability of a nanomixture, consisting of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and nanosilica, to consolidate the limestone, which is also a novel approach that this study introduces. It is worth noting that the limestone of Tomb 109 has suffered harsh weather conditions such as groundwater and has been in an unfavourable burial environment, causing geostatic stress which in turn has led to stone abrasion and weakness in its mechanical properties. This study also presents a comprehensive morphological and spectroscopic study to confirm the efficiency of the nanomixture in the consolidation of the limestone structures. A cross-examination method using CT scanning, SEM, and XRF analysis before and after consolidation was employed. The final result shows that the nanomixture significantly enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of the limestone.</p> Ahmed Sallam, Sayed Hemeda, Moustapha Hassan, Mona M.E. Khalil Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmed Sallam, Sayed Hemeda, Moustapha Hassan, Mona M.E. Khalil Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Community cultural heritage management and protection of selected medieval Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia <p>The Rock-Hewn Churches of Lalibela are tangible world heritage. However, the sculptures are facing imminent danger of destruction and damage from various factors of deterioration. This is because they have been affected by various agents which have caused rapid deterioration, as well as by the aging process. Geological factors can be related to the rock formations and fractured ceilings; climatic factors can be related to temperature fluctuations which gradually affect the condition of the cultural heritage; biological factors include bacteria and fungi which are also a threat to the sculptures. Hence, modern conservation methods are needed to halt further damage before facing the total collapse of the entire structure. Having described several elements of concern in the management of this World Heritage Site, this study suggests important considerations to put in place for developing proper approaches to its preservation.</p> Yezihalem Sisay Takele, Gezae Haile Weldemichael, Kassegn Berhanu Melese Copyright (c) 2022 Yezihalem Sisay Takele, Gezae Haile Weldemichael, Kassegn Berhanu Melese Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The architecture of Mosques and the Covid-19 pandemic <p>This article attempts to provide some answers to the unexpected effects of the global Covid-19 pandemic relating to the architecture of mosques. For this, we observed mosques in El Oued in the south of Algeria; the climatic and social features of the region involve the use of outer courtyards for prayer and are taken as a motivating case study. Our investigation in relation to the spread of COVID-19 is the fact that the topic has not been tackled before. COVID-19 has had a great impact at all levels, including the closure of mosques. As the pandemic developed, decisions about the gradual and controlled opening of mosques were made, based only on the capacity factor of the covered spaces of mosques. These decisions ignored the uncovered outer spaces found in mosques in El Oued and some other regions in Algeria. They were, of course, a response to the health protocol requirements related to measures to prevent and protect against COVID-19. We then asked ourselves the following questions: How could the knowledge and spatial arrangement of mosques guide us towards better management and decision-making during a health crisis like COVID-19? And what would the impact of this pandemic on the future architecture of mosques be? Our article is an attempt to find some answers to these questions.</p> Imadeddine Khoukhi, Dalila Senhadji Copyright (c) 2022 Imadeddine Khoukhi, Dalila Senhadji Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The phenomenon of diversity and the effective response to the physical environment: the formation of old traditional markets (Suq) <p>Many cities worldwide take pride in their traditional markets. This research aims to verify the importance of lessons learned from old traditional markets, characterized by the effective response to their physical environment. This main aim leads to many secondary aims. First is the aim to explain the role of the phenomena of diversity in the establishment of various markets. Second, the research aims to explain the relationship between the specialization of goods, the architectural form and general planning of the market. Third, the research aims to investigate the relationship between markets and the diversity of the goods, width of the corridors, roofing style, and how this diversity affects shoppers, as well as interacting among the shoppers themselves. The research adopts a descriptive analytical methodology for a number of market types in order to study the morphology of traditional markets, their form, their urban context, and their relationship with the diversity of the goods and the impact it has on shoppers. The most important conclusion reached by the research is that the diversity in the morphology of traditional markets corresponds to the diversity and change of goods, the width of the corridors and the style of the roof … etc. This diversity affects shoppers and generates a state of pleasure and social interaction.</p> Kabila Faris Hmood, Jawdat Goussous Copyright (c) 2022 Kabila Faris Hmood, Jawdat Goussous Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The national jewelry of Bashkir women: tradition and modernity <p>In Bashkir studies, women's national jewelry has been considered in the works of several researchers. However, analysis of the scientific literature and specialized sources has shown a lack of scientific research and publications on the role of national women's jewelry in the life of modern people. A review of the available information about women's jewelry can serve as a basis for further in-depth research in this area. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to Bashkir women's jewelry, its philosophy and spiritual meaning, to emphasize its role and place in modern life. Familiarizing the reader with the aesthetic and artistic traditions of Bashkir people makes this study relevant for the present and fills a gap in the research of women's jewelry as elements of Bashkir material culture and its reflection in the folklore of the people. Based on folklore and ethnographic materials related to women's clothing, jewelry, taken from published and unpublished field notes of the authors, this article aims to show the rich history of Bashkir women's jewelry from ancient times to the present day and determine its place in modern Bashkir culture. The analytical approach used for this study revealed the frequent mention of national ornaments in folklore, for example, in Bashkir fairy tales, songs and epics, emphasizing their aesthetic and social functions. Examples taken from various genres of Bashkir folklore illustrate the authors' observations about the spiritual meanings and aesthetic value of women's jewelry in the life of a Bashkir woman, and which have not lost their significance for contemporaries.</p> Zugura Yaganurovna Rakhmatullina, Gulnur Ravilovna Khusainova Copyright (c) 2022 Zugura Yaganurovna Rakhmatullina, Gulnur Ravilovna Khusainova Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Why the courtyards of historical palaces should not be roofed in <p>There is a trend to roof over the courtyards of historical palaces and similar great buildings with an eye to conservation or to expanding their range of functions. This tendency is being popularized by major architects and barely a voice is raised against it. However, from the viewpoint of theory and heritage, such actions are not to be recommended. In line with some international documents on cultural heritage, several architectural, perceptual and functional arguments show that, in order to preserve the cultural authenticity of courtyards, it would be advisable to avoid covering them. A courtyard is by definition an open space. Covering it, even with an apparently harmless glazed roof, radically affects its architectural essence and how it is experienced. Hence, such projects should not be accepted in a generalized and uncritical manner. It is best for courtyards to be left as courtyards, not as rooms with skylights.</p> Javier Pérez Gil, Rodrigo Almonacid Copyright (c) 2022 Javier Pérez Gil, Rodrigo Almonacid Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Weathering of monumental Islamic marble in Egypt: a contribution to heritage studies <p>Marble is a metamorphic rock widely used in historical buildings as a structural and decorative stone; also, it is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material; for example, the lower parts of many walls of Mamluk and Turkish buildings are covered with marble tiles of different colors (mainly, white, red, black) as well as many of the columns in these structures. Due to the severe effects of deterioration factors, such as, atmospheric parameters, air pollution, ground water, micro-organisms, the decorative marble slabs and columns are seriously deteriorated. Forty marble specimens were collected from the most deteriorated parts of marbles located inside and outside selected historical buildings, namely the Sultan Qalawun complex in Al-Muizz Al-Deen Allah Street in Cairo (1284 AD) an archaeological architectural group, built in the Mamluk style. The present work focuses on the identification of the mechanism of marble deterioration. In order to carry out this study, different samples were collected from the deteriorated historical marble of the Qalawun; the marble samples collected for study were not from a single building, but from the complex of the Sultan Qalawun Group or the Qalawun Mosque, and included a school and dome, and the Mosque. The mihrab of the dome is considered one of the most luxurious mihrabs of antiquity in Egypt. Each of its sides is surrounded by three marble columns, and its cavity has four layers of gilded recesses supported by marble columns. The marble samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), polarized light microscope (PLM) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The obtained results showed that the mineral constituents of the investigated samples were seriously deteriorated, and the physical structure had collapsed.</p> Mona M.E. Khalil, Ahmed Sallam, Randa Shenouda, Mohammad Sh. Alsubaie Copyright (c) 2022 Mona M.E. Khalil, Ahmed Sallam, Randa Shenouda, Mohammad Sh. Alsubaie Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Heritage cross-disciplinarity. The <em>Arquitectura Textos de Doctorado</em> collection <p>Readers are introduced to the most recent titles from the collection ARQUITECTURA - TEXTOS DE DOCTORADO, published jointly by the University Institute of Architecture and Building Science (IUACC) and Editorial Universidad de Sevilla since 1997. The seven titles are the result of doctoral theses awarded by the IUACC. All of them share a cross-disciplinary approach touching upon architecture, landscape, and immobile heritage (architectural, archaeological or landscape) and are highly relevant to readers with an interest in heritage conservation: Cartografías del espacio oculto. Welbeck Estate en Inglaterra y otros espacios by Tomás García (2018); Francesco Venezia, John Hejduk y el arte de la memoria by Gabriel Bascones (2018); Topografías arquitectónicas en el paisaje contemporáneo by Carlos Rodríguez (2019); La forma plástica de la estructura. Expresividad del hecho resistente by Félix Suárez (2019); Paisajes patrimoniales en coexistencia by Sagrario Fernández Raga (2020); Arquitectura de los pantanos en España by Eduard Callís Freixas (2021) and Un cliente y un arquitecto: Jan Antonín Bat’a y Le Corbusier by Jaime Prior (2022). All of these clearly show the interest of the authors in the dissemination of cross-disciplinary awareness of the heritage identity of architecture and the need for in-depth research and preservation.</p> Germán Herruzo Domínguez, Antonio Tejedor Cabrera Copyright (c) 2022 Germán Herruzo Domínguez, Antonio Tejedor Cabrera Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Issues in the expression of local identity in the saharan regions of Algeria: in search of references to vernacular architecture <p>This article focuses on the Saharan vernacular houses in the Souf region (Algeria), from the point of view of their capacity to express local identity. An approach based on historical research methods (documentary research, iconography, etc.) and architectural analysis was adopted to investigate the subject. The findings confirmed that the features of local identity are expressed in certain morphological attributes noted in the vernacular houses. These attributes are the result of the construction process itself, which is closely linked to the use of local building materials, namely tafza and louss stones. The constraints of the settlement site precluded the use of earth and palm wood as the main building materials. In addition, the space of the sabat (portico-like structure in the courtyard) is a major identity feature, marking the layout and use of domestic space. If the culture of reference, the site, and the climate have proved to be predisposing factors for a particular typology, it is the building system that has truly forged the identity image of the Souf. The local architectural identity is fed by the specificities of the region, taking into account its human component in accordance with the historical and cultural dimensions. Exogenous contributions are the driving force behind the dynamism in the expression of local identity.</p> Sami Zerari, Alessandra Cirafici, Leila Sriti Copyright (c) 2022 Sami Zerari, Alessandra Cirafici, Leila Sriti Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 L’Erma di Bretschneider: a reference point for scientific and humanistic publications since 1896 <p>Founded in 1896, L’ERMA di Bretschneider is a historic publishing house, whose mission is to publish works of excellent academic reputation. The topics covered by the publications include archaeology, history, heritage conservation and management, Roman law, history of art and architecture, and literary criticism. L’ERMA di Bretschneider is unanimously recognized as the Italian publishing house par excellence for its scientific publications in the field of humanities, in particular archaeology, ancient history and art history. The intense research activity in historical, archaeological and artistic disciplines carried out by L’ERMA in collaboration with leading experts in the field and the most prestigious universities in the world, and the vast editorial catalogue which boasts over a century of collaboration with the Ministry of Culture and its constituent bodies and includes prestigious series and magazines, constitute today an invaluable wealth of cultural heritage, available not only to scholars and enthusiasts, but to the entire community.</p> Andrea Natali, Salvatore Lorusso Copyright (c) 2022 Andrea Natali, Salvatore Lorusso Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The sociocultural impact of the djemaa on the organization of the ksour (south-west of Algeria) <p>The ksour (vernacular human settlements) of southwestern Algeria, founded on the site of the Saharan area called Saoura, are integrated into the modest dunes which run along the rocky escarpments (limiting them). They take the form of a harmonious heap of cubic volumes, of gray ocher color which merges with the natural landscape. Their architecture proves to be the fruit of the spirit of mutual aid and community participation, coordinated by the institution of the "djemaa": a public space extending from the mosque, which brings together notables in order to solve problems in Ksour society. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the "djemaa" space. In addition to a privileged place of rest, meeting and exchanges, this institution once brought together all the notables who judiciously concerned themselves with the management of community interests, as well as the socio-spatial organization of the ksour (situated in the southwest of Algeria). It was a local assembly for the management of collective interests, whose powers were extremely broad. As council of the ksar, the djemaa played a primordial role in the organization of the community life of these ksour. This study highlights the socio-cultural impact of the djemaa on the logic of the configuration of ksour heritage in the Bechar region. For this purpose, a socio-historical approach was adopted, which was then followed by a morphological reading of some ksour specimens.</p> Abdelmalek Benaradj, Ratiba Wided Biara Copyright (c) 2022 Abdelmalek Benaradj, Ratiba Wided Biara Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Virus Group. Napoli New York Corviale <p>Through a study of the catalogue that accompanied the exhibition “VIRUS GROUP, Naples, New York Corviale”, the paper aims to raise awareness and foster appreciation for the ancient and contemporary heritage in all its variety and complexity, located in a particular area in the city of Rome, Corviale: heritage that is housed in the Drugstore Museum and represents a mix between archaeology and contemporaneity - an example of a public and participatory management model designed to train and provide for the cultural needs of its citizens. This task is fulfilled mainly through the medium of contemporary art, due to its ability to interpret the reality of inclusion and to strengthen the idea of identity, to rehabilitate places and people, and to help the territory to grow. In this case, contemporary art is represented by a group of artists, the Virus Group, which established itself in Corviale after a series of varied experiences in Italy and abroad. Today, it is one of the most incisive and relevant voices in the field of applied arts.</p> Daniela Porro, Franca De Leo Copyright (c) 2022 Daniela Porro, Franca De Leo Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Factors that affect participation in the “Carnaval de Negros y Blancos” in Colombia <p>The Black and White Carnival in Pasto (Carnaval de Negros y Blancos) is a cultural event that is deemed Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO (2009). It takes place the first week of January every year in southern Colombia. In this event, artists and artisans display their creativity and compete in six different modalities: individual costume, troupe, band of street musicians, choreographic collective, non-motorized float, and emblematic motorized float. In each edition of the carnival, there is an accreditation process that grants official permission to compete and be part of this event from an artistic viewpoint. There are three stages: registration, accreditation, and participation, which are addressed to relate the factors that affect each phase and determine the options to participate in the CNB. For this reason, the data obtained for this research are related to variables of registration, management, and the influence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), which show the modernization of administrative processes through the implementation of information systems and digital tools. The results presented arise from the systematization of statistical data on determining factors that affect the decisions and actions that artists must undertake, such as adhering to the guidelines and complying with the regulations established by Corpocarnaval. In this phase, valuable information was obtained relating to registering the categories and providing the required documentation; the human and economic resources that were needed; the materials used for the models or prototypes; and the sources of financing, as well as the tools, frequency of use and ICT management skills.</p> Carolina Avendaño Peña, Luis Antonio Eraso Caicedo, Jorge Albeiro Rivera Rosero Copyright (c) 2022 Carolina Avendaño Peña, Luis Antonio Eraso Caicedo, Jorge Albeiro Rivera Rosero Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Elements of archaic music reflected in petroglyphs as a phenomenon of cultural heritage, the original source of material and spiritual culture <p>This article examines the process of development of musical culture; the evolution of the functional features of a musical instrument (production, cult, aesthetic); the gradual allocation of a musical instrument from among ancient syncretic sound production and magic complexes and its formation as a professional instrument; the influence of the natural environment on the sound palette; the birth and realization of the specific role of music characterized by the spatiality of the sound stream and influencing the formation of worldviews and culture. The article proves the necessity of studying petroglyphs as a sign system, as the initial stage in the formation of musical art.</p> Gulzhan Suleyeva, Ainur Yessetova, Aigul Kossanova, Aisulu Kaldayakova, Lyailya Kaliakbarova, Yerbol Ussenbayev Copyright (c) 2022 Gulzhan Suleyeva, Ainur Yessetova, Aigul Kossanova, Aisulu Kaldayakova, Lyailya Kaliakbarova, Yerbol Ussenbayev Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Shamanistic ritual ceremony and accompanying music as the worldview basis of traditional culture <p>This article is a comprehensive study of shamanic ritual music in syncretic unity with ritual rite, which is inextricably linked with an ethnic worldview. The aim of this work is to identify and substantiate the need to study ritual music based on a fundamentally new methodological setting – the study of ritual as an archetype of culture, determination of the compositional structure and semantic filling. The research is devoted to the mysteries of the sacred musical world of shamanic ritual, the ultimate state of the shaman as a musician, his spiritual world, cultural environment, the understanding of the morphology and semantics of the use of music in ritual, the formation of a cultural code, stylistic features, genre forms, musical thinking, musical language, means of expression, individualized and personally colored vocal and instrumental improvisation.</p> Ainur Mashimbaуeva, Arita Baisakalova, Aigul Kossanova, Gulsara Absatarova, Botagoz Utebayeva, Svetlana Janseitova Copyright (c) 2022 Ainur Mashimbaуeva, Arita Baisakalova, Aigul Kossanova, Gulsara Absatarova, Botagoz Utebayeva, Svetlana Janseitova Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 The Steri, the historical site of Palermo University: past, present, future <p>The aim of the paper is to present the study carried out by the art historian Ferdinando Bologna on the painted ceiling of the Steri in Palermo in an informative but less formal way, so as to make it more accessible and, therefore, more enjoyable for a wider audience of enthusiasts and not just experts of the subject. The study examines a monument of exceptional importance for the city of Palermo, highlighting not only the nature of its extraordinary repertoire of late medieval fables, but also its significance as a document of important historical, iconographic, documentary and literary value. It also underlines what the Steri represents for Palermo University as a symbol of its roots in the city context and of the historical-evolutionary continuity of Sicilian society. The work concludes with a brief reference to the importance that the University of Palermo has assumed in the little more than two hundred years since its establishment, transforming itself from a cultural institution for the few, to a symbol of a culture open to all, dynamically projected towards a future of growth and innovation.</p> Salvatore Lorusso, Franco Palla, Maria Concetta Di Natale, Giovanni Travagliato Copyright (c) 2022 Salvatore Lorusso, Franco Palla, Maria Concetta Di Natale, Giovanni Travagliato Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Nomadic life cycle structured by calendar, representative of lexical-semantic processes and genre systems <p>The appeal of cultural heritage as a creative product, an "intellectual potential" having centuries-old traditions and unique value, such as the Tengrian calendar, is especially relevant today. The Tengrian calendar is a genre system of traditional music and the work of professional singers and instrumentalists, which represent lexical-semantic processes. The role of the Tengrian calendar in structuring the life cycle and age stratification of nomadic society is undeniable and necessary for the preservation of identity, as well as being a contextual connection with modernity. Possessing a huge field of information and semantic code, the Tengrian calendar, as a component of the spiritual and intellectual world process, is worthy not only of preservation and development, but also of comprehensive scientific research. The article studies the problems of traditional Kazakh culture belonging to the super-ethnic civilization of nomadic peoples. Based on the study, it was found that the calendar played a role in structuring the life cycle and age stratification of nomadic Kazakh society.</p> Asiya Mukhambetova, Gulzhan Suleyeva, Ainur Yessetova, Svetlana Janseitova, Aisulu Kaldayakova, Gulsm Arkabayeva Copyright (c) 2022 Asiya Mukhambetova, Gulzhan Suleyeva, Ainur Yessetova, Svetlana Janseitova, Aisulu Kaldayakova, Gulsm Arkabayeva Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Old monasteries and new cemeteries. The case of the Capuchins in Conversano, Italy <p>In the first decades of the 19th century, local authorities in Capitanata, Terra di Bari and Terra d'Otranto set about acquiring extramural land and preparing plans for new cemeteries in application of the health laws passed in 1817 during the Bourbon Restoration, complying with the provisions of the Napoleonic edict of Saint-Cloud. The idea of acquiring places of worship outside the city walls, including suppressed monasteries, with their walled gardens that could be included in the enclosures of the erected cemeteries, immediately appeared to be a useful expedient for overcoming the difficulty of devising a new spatial model for burials, taking advantage of architectural structures that offered the dual advantage of counting on significant cost containment and maintaining a strong link to the ancient Christian tradition of burial in a sacred place. This entailed redesigning the relationship between the built and enclosed spaces of many Capuchin structures, which were deprived of their walled garden with the inevitable transformation of the site and, as a result, were forced to redetermine its semantics. In the case of Conversano, the varying spatial relationships pose a problem that can be addressed by resorting to a project to conserve and enhance the Capuchin structure, so as to renew the mutually beneficial coexistence between the monastery and the cemetery by bringing together what has survived of the walled garden and what has become part of the garden of memory.</p> Rossella de Cadilhac Copyright (c) 2022 Rossella de Cadilhac Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Using Digital Twin Models (DTM) for managing, protecting and restoring historical buildings <p>Historical buildings are essential cultural assets to be preserved and maintained for the sake of future generations. However, they are also highly vulnerable to natural disasters and other extreme events, which can cause irreparable damage or even their total loss. To manage these risks, a growing number of experts are turning to Digital Twin Models (DTM), conceived as more than a mere virtual replica of physical objects or systems. They can be used to monitor, inspect, and simulate the functioning and behaviour of a building in real-world scenarios. In the context of reconstruction, DTM can be used to create virtual models of damaged buildings, allowing experts to assess the extent of the damage and plan restoration. By creating a DTM of a historical building, experts can gain valuable insights into its construction technique, structural integrity, maintenance needs, and potential vulnerabilities in real time. This can help to extend the lifespan of the historical building and ensure that it remains in good condition for future generations. In case of an extreme event, such as a natural disaster or terrorist attack, war or vandalism, a DTM, together with all related enabling digital technologies, can be used to plan for and respond to the crisis, also simulating the effects of a disaster to develop emergency response plans accordingly. Therefore, the use of DTM can enhance the current vision of a historical building thus helping it to increase its resiliency to potential damaging, preserving, and maintaining its historical and cultural value and characteristics through time.</p> Federico Cinquepalmi, Fabrizio Cumo Copyright (c) 2022 Federico Cinquepalmi, Fabrizio Cumo Thu, 20 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0200